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Annals of Surgical Oncology

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Cholangiographic Tumor Classification for Simple Patient Selection Prior to Hepatopancreatoduodenectomy for Cholangiocarcinoma

Yoshitaka Toyoda MD, Tomoki Ebata MD, Takashi Mizuno MD, Yukihiro Yokoyama MD, Tsuyoshi Igami MD, Junpei Yamaguchi MD, Shunsuke Onoe MD, Nobuyuki Watanabe MD, Masato Nagino MD
Hepatobiliary Tumors
Volume 26, Issue 9 / September , 2019



Hepatopancreatoduodenectomy (HPD) is employed for patients with laterally advanced cholangiocarcinoma. However, the survival benefit of this extended approach remains controversial. The aim of this study is to identify a tumor feature benefiting from HPD from the standpoint of long-term survival.

Patients and Methods

Patients with cholangiocarcinoma who underwent HPD with curative intent between 2001 and 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Tumors were radiologically classified by preoperative cholangiogram. Diffuse type was defined as significant tumor/stricture located from the hilar to intrapancreatic duct; localized type was defined as tumor otherwise. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify prognostic indicators.


Of 100 study patients, 28 (28%) patients had diffuse tumor type, while the remaining 72 (72%) patients had localized tumors. The former group showed significantly longer lateral length (43 versus 22 mm, P < 0.001) and more frequent pancreatic invasion (50% versus 32%, P = 0.110), advanced T classification (64% versus 49%, P = 0.185), and nodal metastasis (57% versus 47%, P = 0.504), compared with the latter group. The survival for patients with diffuse tumor type was significantly worse than that for patients with localized tumor type, with 5-year survival rates of 59.0% versus 26.3%, respectively (P = 0.003). Multivariable analysis identified four independent factors deteriorating long-term survival: cholangiographic diffuse tumor (P = 0.021), higher age (P = 0.020), percutaneous biliary drainage (P = 0.007), and portal vein resection (P = 0.007).


Presurgical cholangiographic classification, diffuse or localized type, is a tumor-related factor closely associated with survival probability; therefore, it may be a useful feature for patient selection prior to HPD for cholangiocarcinoma.

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