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The American Society of Breast Surgeons.
Annals of Surgical Oncology

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Redefining Eligibility by Analyzing Canceled Intraoperative Radiotherapy as a Boost for Patients Undergoing Breast-Conserving Treatment

Jun Won Kim MD, PhD, Yeona Cho MD, Jinhyun Choi MD, Sung Gwe Ahn MD, Joon Jeong MD, PhD, Ik Jae Lee MD, PhD
Breast Oncology
Volume 26, Issue 13 / December , 2019



Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) with a 50-kV x-ray is used for a tumor bed boost during breast-conserving surgery. This study evaluated the anatomicosurgical factors associated with cancellation of planned IORT.


Patient eligibility for the study included age of 20 years or older, compatibility for lumpectomy, and ductal carcinoma in situ or stages 1–3 invasive carcinoma. All the patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and multidisciplinary team evaluations. Resection margins were assessed by frozen pathology. Pre- and intraoperative variables were compared between the IORT and IORT-cancellation groups.


A total of 434 patients underwent surgeries for IORT between August 2014 and December 2017. For 90 of these patients, IORT was canceled because of repeated positive margins leading to a large cavity or total mastectomy (n = 27), insufficient cavity-skin distance (n = 14), satellite lesions leading to a large cavity or total mastectomy (n = 12), MRI findings of a large primary tumor or uncertain margins leading to a large cavity (n = 6), cavity geometry unsuitable for IORT (n = 6), subareolar tumor extension (n = 6), tumor abutting the pectoralis muscle (n = 3), patient refusal (n = 5), intraoperative confirmation of bilateral breast cancer (n = 3) or benign pathology (n = 3), device malfunction (n = 3), or scheduling difficulty (n = 2). A tumor larger than 2 cm (P = 0.014) and the presence of satellite lesions (P = 0.014) were independent predictors of IORT cancellation.


Surgical procedures resulting in large cavities were the leading cause of IORT cancellation. Multidisciplinary evaluations using MRI were critical for completion of IORT procedures.

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