The Society of Surgical Oncology, inc.
The American Society of Breast Surgeons.
Annals of Surgical Oncology

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Proactive Approach to Lymphedema Risk Reduction: A Prospective Study

Mei R. Fu PhD, RN, ACNS-BC, FAAN, Deborah Axelrod MD, FACS, Amber A. Guth MD, FACS, Francis Cartwright PhD, RN-BC, Zeyuan Qiu PhD, Judith D. Goldberg ScD, June Kim MPS, Joan Scagliola MS, RN, Robin Kleinman MS, RN, Judith Haber PhD, RN, APRN-BC, FAAN
Breast Oncology
Volume 21, Issue 11 / October , 2014

Abstract

Background

Advances in cancer treatments continue to reduce the incidence of lymphedema. Yet, many breast cancer survivors still face long-term postoperative challenges as a result of developing lymphedema. The purpose of this study was to preliminarily evaluate The Optimal Lymph Flow program, a patient-centered education and behavioral program focusing on self-care strategies to enhance lymphedema risk reduction by promoting lymph flow and optimize body mass index (BMI).

Methods

A prospective, longitudinal, quasi-experimental design with repeated-measures was used. The study outcomes included lymph volume changes by infrared perometer, and BMI by a bioimpedance device at pre-surgery baseline, 2–4 weeks after surgery, 6-month and 12-month follow-up. A total of 140 patients were recruited and participated in The Optimal Lymph Flow program; 134 patients completed the study with 4 % attrition rate.

Results

Fifty-eight percent of patients had axillary node dissection and 42 % had sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The majority (97 %) of patients maintained and improved their preoperative limb volume (LV) and BMI at the study endpoint of 12 months following cancer surgery. Cumulatively, two patients with SLNB and two patients with axillary lymph node dissection had measurable lymphedema (>10 % LV change). At the 12-month follow-up, among the four patients with measurable lymphedema, two patients’ LV returned to preoperative level without compression therapy but by maintaining The Optimal Lymph Flow exercises to promote daily lymph flow.

Conclusions

This educational and behavioral program is effective in enhancing lymphedema risk reduction. The study provided initial evidence for emerging change in lymphedema care from treatment-focus to proactive risk reduction.

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